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Industrial Laminates

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Industrial Laminates In 1906, Dr. Leo Baekeland experimented with the polymerization of phenolic resins. He found that by adding formaldehyde and heat, a chemical cross linkage took place. Thermoset plastics were born. Soon after it was discovered that cotton cloth and paper materials could be impregnated with this same mixture, semi-cured and then made into a stack of sheets or wrapped around a mandrel and subsequently put into a hydraulic press where heat and pressure could be applied. Full polymerization took place rendering hard, dense, reinforced thermoset plastics, which today are known as industrial laminates.

Thermoset plastic industrial laminates are uniformly dense and structurally strong materials that will not soften appreciably under the reapplication of heat. They are extremely durable plastics that are lightweight and moisture resistant. They are thermoset plastic resins impregnated reinforcing substrate materials that are cured under heat and pressure to form solid shapes having high mechanical and insulating properties.

Industrial laminates are available in sheet, rod, tube and angle. Since these laminates are comprised of a combination of materials, they are also referred to as composites.

Thermoset plastic industrial laminates typically have a layered construction with no fewer than two components. The first is a reinforcing substrate such as woven glass cloth, random glass mat, glass filaments, woven canvas cotton fabric, woven linen cotton fabric, paper, woven aramid fabric, random mat aramid, woven graphite fabric, random mat graphite and others. The second is a thermoset plastic resin binder, which serves to adhere the layers of reinforcing substrates to each other to form a solid unit. Resin binders include epoxies, melamines, phenolics, polyesters, silicones and others.

Unlike other groups of plastic material, thermoset plastic industrial laminates have their own standards, which are published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). In concert with member manufacturers, NEMA standards are set and "minimum values" are published. The most commonly used NEMA thermoset laminate grades are as follows:

*Industrial Laminates are also available in Static Dissipative Grades.

Thermoset Industrial Laminates Applications

Electrical Industry - insulators for applications:
  • Relays
  • Switches
  • Bus bars
  • Standoffs
  • Washers
  • Arc shields
  • Vanes
  • Test boards
  • Panels
  • Condensers
  • Transformers
  • Sockets
  • Terminal strips
  • Fuses
  • Coils
  • Motors
  • Generators
  • Gaskets
  • Transformers
  • Circuit boards
  • Panels
Nema Certification Table  
Grade Certifies to:  
G-10 Mil-I-24768/2 – GEE  
FR-4 Mil-I-24768/27 – GEE-F  
G-11 Mil-I-24768/3 – GEB  
FR-5 Mil-I-24768/28 – GEB-F  
G-5 Mil-I-24768/8 – GMG  
G-9 Mil-I-24768/1 – GME  
G-7 Mil-I-24768/17 – GSG  
GPO-1 Mil-I-24768/4 - GPO1  
GPO-2 Mil-I-24768/5 - GPO3  
GPO-3 Mil-I-24768/6 - GPO3  
X Mil-I-24768/12 - PBM  
XX Mil-I-24768/11 - PBG  
XXX Mil-I-24768/10 - PBE  
C Mil-I-24768/16 - FBM  
CE Mil-I-24768/14 - FBG  
L Mil-I-24768/15 - FBI  
LE Mil-I-24768/13 - FBE  
Certifications change over time. Check for current status.


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